|Difficulty in observation
Vagueness within complexity in a wide of gray
Ambiguity between black and white
|Views on Asia
India calls "East Asia" the region that Japan simply terms Asia
The winds of modernity blow from West to East, hence Western culture and technology are well known and appreciated by Indians.
Indians think that India is geographically located in between East and West but culturally "unique".
Japanese definition of "Asia" is very narrow, namely the
area within "East Asia" only.
|Characterization of mindset
(Indians want to do something different)
Secularism vs. Hindu nationalism vs.
(Hinduism is secular in character)
The influence of religion on most Indians affects their daily life, whether Hindus, Muslims or Christians.
Many people are named after Hindu Gods or Saints. (Similar to Muslim or Christians)
Full of philanthropy towards poverty-ridden people.
Cosmopolitan by birth
18 official languages
Easy to accustom to foreign languages, having talent for multi-lingualism
Dexterity in English is a yardstick to evaluate a person's education and culture. Mutual understanding between Western countries and India through a common language (English) is readily developed.
Communication should be expressed in specific words to be thoroughly understood by others, it may need direct verbal argument. Japanese quietness is often misunderstood as secretiveness and cunning.
Single language (spoken and written)
Indian cuisine though tasty, is heavy to digest for the Japanese, who do not mind spicy food, but dislike too oily cooking.
For many Japanese, a diet of Japanese food is indispensable, but this is not easily available in India. Indians think the taste of Japanese cuisine is too bland and thin.
(The Japanese features mentioned hereunder are the traditional ones which are now being transformed gradually.)
Indian people are individually motivated.
Self is more important the company.
More keen to talk than listen.
Little regard for other person's point of view
Previously, India exported some affordable goods and exportable surplus only, because India is large enough to be self-sustaining domestic market.
Upon seeing profitability, businessmen generally commit before making a detailed study of the proposal.
Decision by top-downward process From Indian businessmen's point of view, negotiations with Japanese are long and tortuous, too secretive, too clannish, too reserved.
Can make requests to other side for providing more and more information without obligation and regard for other person's efforts and time. History of seller's market has prevented development of sense of customer-oriented service in India.
In case market's demand is for low-price, it would be of secondary importance to keep quality production. Prices take precedence over quality because of lower purchasing power of the people.
Indian firms are more flexible concerning the issue of time schedule. The Japanese party does not understand the difference between India and Japan in the standards of efficiency and output.
People generally have a mathematical bent of mind, besides they are highly philosophical.
Rupee has been gradually depreciated since 1966, stage by stage.
Individuals are willing to take chances by job-hopping for better personal benefits, namely self-development and self-reliance, without much regard for corporation.
Job-rotation with in a company helps to
inconvenience that may be caused to the company.
Groups within big business houses, even family-run companies, tend to segregate themselves divided houses.
Achieve profit to finance growth allowing freedom of action to the individual.
Rewards are salary and position, based on business acumen.
In public Sector Units (PSU), there are many "Authorities", namely Steel Authority of India Ltd., Gas Authority of India Ltd., etc. Set-up of regulatory authority in vogue.
Bureaucrat elites do not like to change their career course into politics.
Being a large county, political management becomes far more difficult, specially for high proportion of rural population, which is tradition bound where many people are below poverty
Indian businessmen invite guests home as a sign courtesy.
Japanese are highly strung with regard to the concept of time,
meeting the deadlines being sacrosanct in all aspects of operations.
|Industrial relation with worker'
Craft or industrial union
Indian unions are often guided by professional unionists with socialist traditions. Workers are not well organized and disciplined. Most political parties have trade unions.
Workers are against corporate automation and restructuring because of the fear of losing jobs.
Ambitious climber to run the fast track and adapt short cut.
Exit policy: Redeployment by National Relief Fund
|Large and small enterprises
Large business houses and small scale industries (SSI) are separated by law. 836 industrial items are reserved for SSI only, though the number of items is being reduced. Effective cooperation between the two is rare, resulting in their supplanting each other.
Investment atmosphere is not kind to venture-capitalists due to tight barrier
market by even small venture capitalists if they have the sprit of creativity
Number of listed companies in the stock market is around 7300.
Air India operates 6 flights weekly between India and Japan.
Though there is some competition and friction between the two, coordination is organized by grouping of large and small companies as a two-tier structure of industries, supplementing each other.
and the high hurdle to regulations. Besides, stockholders prefer
larger establishments over new-entrant, however promising the later
Understanding in different ways from many points of view is needed towards India, country of immense diversity.
Under Non-Aligned Movement, India was trying to benefit from East and West balancing between the two. But in 1970s, Japan saw India as pro-Soviet.
No adverse war-time memory in India against Japan (cf. Justice Radhabinod Pal's dissenting judgement in the Tokyo war crime trial).
India is a large country surrounded by smaller neighbours.
|The Japanese tend to have uniform, single perception of India as
a whole, ignoring the immense diversity.
Until recently, India saw Japan as an American surrogate, having no independent foreign policy of its own. It is still a puzzle, except in terms of Japan's needs for the American market.
No sense of rivalry between each other.
An "island country"
syndrome and shyness.